FOREIGN POLICY: DOCTRINES OF PAST PRESIDENTS
19th century doctrines:
1. Monroe Doctrine: proclaimed that European powers shall not colonize in the Americas or interfere in the affairs of the sovereign nations of the United States, Mexico, Gran Colombia, and the Americas. US would stay neutral in wars that are not directly erupted on the US homefront.
2. Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine: Monroe Doctrine would now consider Latin America as an agency for expanding U.S. commercial interests in the region, along with its original stated purpose of keeping European hegemony from the hemisphere.
-Use of military and economic hegemony to make the US a great power in the Western hemisphere
-The new doctrine was a frank statement that the U.S. was willing to seek leverage over Latin American governments by acting as an international police power in the region
-Known as the “big stick” policy but speaking softly
3. Taft’s Dollar Diplomacy: diplomatic interests in the Latin American countries; further its aims in Latin American and Asian countries; under Taft, the gov’t was more active than ever in securing economies abroad
Foreign Policy in the 20th century
Containment after the Cold War from the spread of communism:
1. Truman Doctrine: During the Cold War, Truman adopted a containment policy to stop the spread of communism
-gave military and economic assistance to the governments in Greece and Turkey to help their economies prosper and prevent communist leaders from taking over their
-Truman stated that if Greece and Turkey did not receive aid, then they would fall to become countries based on communism
Age of Massive Retaliation and Brinkmanship: 1950’s age of Eisenhower
2. Eisenhower Doctrine: a country could request economic assistance or American forces to help if they were threatened by armed aggression from another state
-used when the Soviet Union had threatened oil in Egypt
-thought nuclear weapons had more bang to the buck and was worth the money to assure destruction of forces (Kennedy did not advocate this policy)
- singled out the Soviet threat in his doctrine by authorizing the commitment of U.S. forces "to secure and protect the territorial integrity and political independence of such nations, requesting such aid against overt armed aggression from any nation controlled by international communism".
- Upon a conventional attack on Berlin, for instance, the United States would undertake a massive retaliation on the Soviet Union with nuclear weapons. The massive response doctrine was thus an extension of mutually assured destruction to conventional attacks, conceivably deterring the Soviet Union from attacking any part of the United States' sphere of influence even with conventional weapons.
- Sec. of state Dulles proposed that the US would respond to communist threats to its allies not by using conventional forces in local conflicts but by relying on the deterrent of massive retaliatory power (nuclear weapons)
-“Brinksmanship” pushing the S. Union to the brink of war in order to exact concessions
-refused to permit American intervention in Vietnam
-was not as bold and aggressive as presidents later on
What is the difference between massive retaliation and massive destruction? Is massive destruction part of flexible response?
Expanding the Containment Policy: Flexible Response
3. Kennedy Doctrine: voiced support for the Containment policy and reversal of Communist support in the Western Hemisphere
-Flexible Response was realistic in that nuclear weapons couldn't be used. It tried to provide credible means to match non-nuclear escalation. The word "flexible" stressed the value of having "multiple options" available should a crises arise.
- Conventional forces were to serve two functions, a deterrent function and the function to fight limited wars. The main argument of the Eisenhower administration had been that conventional forces were too costly and nuclear weapons would have "more bang for the buck."
-contrary to Eisenhower wanted to not act at all or act as a major threat, Kennedy Kennedy disregarded costs and emphasized sufficient flexibility to avoid either escalation or humiliation.
-won the election with his stance that there was a missile gap: The missile gap was the Cold War term used in the US for the perceived superiority of the number and power of the USSR's missiles in comparison with its own.
-us vs. them mentality emerged in the Western Hemisphere
- ICBMs, SLBMs, and strategic bombers. This triad made it possible for the United States to impose unacceptable damage to the Soviet Union with one strategic force independent of the other two forces
Alliance for Progress:
-Stressed the need for US aid in Latin American countries; proposed to Congress this policy to provide improved literacy, land use, industrial productivity, health, and education in Latin America
-Failure: by the time the program faded away in the early-1970s, 13 governments in Latin America had been replaced by military rule.
Extension of Kennedy and Eisenhower:
4. Johnson Doctrine: 1965, declared that domestic revolution in the Western Hemisphere would no longer be a local matter when "the object is the establishment of a Communist dictatorship". It is an extension of the Eisenhower and Kennedy Doctrines.
5. Nixon Doctrine: 1969: He stated that the United States henceforth expected its allies to assume primary responsibility for their own military defense. This was the start of the "Vietnamization" of the Vietnam War. The Doctrine argued for the pursuit of peace through a partnership with American allies.
-pursued American intervention in Vietnam, but because of the anti-war opposition in the US, he used “Vietnamization” to train soldiers in SE Asia to defend themselves and reduce the amount of US troops in Vietnam
-application of doctrine “opened the floodgates” for the Iraq and Persian Gulf War to help restore stability and peace in nations and act as a “nuclear umbrella”
6. Carter Doctrine: US would use military force if necessary in the Persian Gulf area; response to the 1979 Afghanistan invasion by the Soviet Union and was intended to deter the Soviet Union
“An attempt by any outside force to gain control of the Persian Gulf region will be regarded as an assault on the vital interests of the United States of America, and such an assault will be repelled by any means necessary, including military force”
7. Reagan Doctrine: supported opponents of communism anywhere in the world, whether or not they had any direct connection to the Soviet Union
-Iran-Contra Scandal arose b/c of Reagan’s continued support of the contras (anti-communist regime in Nicaragua) when Congress rejected the plan